What year did each country finally permit women vote?

The struggle for women's suffrage in Europe was a pivotal movement that spanned decades and ultimately led to a significant shift in political and social dynamics. The early 20th century witnessed a wave of activism and advocacy, as women across the continent rallied for their right to vote. Finland blazed the trail in 1906 by becoming the first European country to grant women full suffrage. This historic moment marked the beginning of a broader movement that would gradually spread throughout the continent.

In the ensuing years, several European nations followed suit, each at its own pace and with unique political landscapes. Norway and Denmark extended voting rights to women in 1913 and 1915, respectively. As World War I raged on, the women's suffrage movement gained momentum, with nations like Russia, Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands granting women the right to vote in the years that followed. The aftermath of the war, coupled with the recognition of women's contributions on various fronts, further solidified the demand for equal political participation.

  1. Finland: 1906
  2. Norway: 1913
  3. Denmark: 1915
  4. Iceland: 1915
  5. Russia (prior to USSR): 1917
  6. Germany: 1918
  7. Austria: 1919
  8. Netherlands: 1919
  9. Luxembourg: 1919
  10. Sweden: 1921
  11. Estonia: 1918 (as part of Soviet Russia) / 1920 (independent)
  12. Latvia: 1918 (as part of Soviet Russia) / 1920 (independent)
  13. Poland: 1918 (as part of Russian Empire) / 1919 (independent)
  14. Albania: 1920
  15. Czechoslovakia: 1920
  16. Turkey: 1930
  17. Spain: 1931
  18. Portugal: 1931
  19. Greece: 1934
  20. France: 1944
  21. Italy: 1945
  22. Yugoslavia: 1945
  23. Bulgaria: 1945
  24. Belgium: 1948
  25. Switzerland: 1971 (for federal elections)
  26. Liechtenstein: 1984 (for municipal elections) / 1986 (for national elections)
  27. Andorra: 1970s (exact year unclear)
  28. San Marino: 1959 (for local elections) / 1960 (for national elections)
  29. Monaco: 1962
  30. Malta: 1947

The struggle for suffrage wasn't without its challenges. Activists and suffragettes faced opposition, including resistance from entrenched political establishments and conservative factions. However, their determination and tireless advocacy prevailed. By the mid-20th century, women's suffrage had become a cornerstone of democratic ideals in Europe. The collective efforts of these brave women not only secured the right to vote but also paved the way for greater gender equality and representation in all aspects of public life.